Mango

Mango (Mangifera indica) is a large tree in the sumac family (Anacardiaceae), along with cashew and pistachio. It can reach a height and crown width of a 100’ or more.

Indigenous to India, the earliest known reference to cultivation can be traced to 2000 BC. The fruit comes in many different shapes, sizes and colors depending on the cultivar. The flesh is golden color, juicy, aromatic with a flat pit in the middle. The texture is silky and delicate and varies in fiber content by cultivar.

Mango trees thrive in hot and dry climate and well-drained soil. In areas where rain is prevalent during flowering and fruit set, trees suffer from anthracnose infection caused by fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides var minor. This fungus can cause destruction of the flowers and drop of young fruit. Some cultivars are less susceptible to anthracnose than others.

Mangoes

Poster by Ken Love available here

Mango varieties

Alphonso – Known as the “King of Mangos”, Alphonso is perhaps the most famous of the Indian mangos worldwide. Highly praised for its flavor and non-fibrous texture, it has a sharp and rich flavor along with more mellow tropical notes. Anthracnose and powdery mildew both can be a problem, although the fruit appears to be very resistant to bacterial black spot.

 

Brahmn Kai Meu – Often spelled ‘Prahm Kei Meu’, this mango is from Thailand and most commonly consumed green. The trees are disease-resistant, prolific producers and have a spreading and moderately vigorous growth habit. The fruits are small and range from a light green to a deeper green in color, even when ripe. The flesh is fibreless. When eaten green it has a crunchy texture similar to an apple. When ripe, it develops floral and honey-like notes, lacking any tart component. The fruit ripens June through July.

 

Brook’s late – A Florida selection that bears from August until October. Tree is medium-sized, and the fruits have a thin seed and yellow-green skin when ripe. The flavor is mild with slight lemony notes. This cultivar can be grown successfully on both the windward and leeward areas of the islands.

 

Carabao – Also known as Philippine mango and very popular in the Philippines. The fruit is slightly elongated with a good flesh-to-seed ratio and thin skin. It is very sweet and a subvariety of Carabao was awarded a Guinness World Record in 1995 for being the sweetest mango in the world. It also has a slight hint of tartness and citrus or pineapple overtones. It is often eaten green. This cultivar is resistant to many of the common mango diseases including anthracnose and bacterial black spot.

 

Cecilove – The fruit is round, medium-sized, and yellow at maturity. The flesh is fibreless and has a defined tart-component that fades as the fruit ripens. The taste is unique with citrusy and berry tones and syrupy sweetness. Trees are compact and have a slow and dense growth habit. It is an early to mid-season mango ripening from June through July.

 

Cotton candy – Cotton Candy has an extremely sweet and robust flavor. It doesn’t actually taste like cotton candy, but it is a very sweet mango with an additional scent of citrus. The flesh is yellow-orange and fibreless. The trees are vigorous growers, with vertical open canopy. This mango tree is a must have for any mango connoisseur and will make an excellent addition to any mango collection. The fruit ripens from July to August.

 

Coconut Cream – A small to medium-sized cultivar that originated in South Florida and is considered a semi-dwarf variety. Hence the name, it has a very noticeable coconut flavor, coupled with a fibreless texture. The flesh is golden, juicy and soft, with a rich flavor profile and a great seed to flesh ratio. It seems to be relatively resistant to anthracnose and other common fungal diseases.

 

Crème Brûlée – It has a medium-sized fruit with yellow, juicy, and fibreless flesh. The texture is very soft, creamy, and buttery. The tree has a low-to-moderate vigor growth habit and a dense, spreading canopy. The flowers can be susceptible to anthracnose. It is a mid-season mango, ripening from late June through July.

 

Ewais – Originating in Egypt, Ewais has a small yellow fruit with a fibreless flesh and exceptionally sweet flavor. The texture is smooth and juicy. The flavor is a unique, sweet, and spicy mix with depth and complexity. Trees have a medium vigor, upright growth habit with dense canopy. They are prone to post-harvest anthracnose, but resistant to bacterial spot. The fruit ripens in July.

 

Fairchild – This cultivar was introduced in Hawaii from Panama in 1920s. It bears small fruits in June and July that have yellow skin when ripe. The flesh is juicy and low in fiber. Fairchild is considered relatively anthracnose tolerant and can produce in wetter climates where other varieties usually fail to fruit because of this fungus.

 

Florigon – Florigon is a large and vigorous grower. The fruit is small-to-medium sized, yellow, and ovate in shape. The flesh is delicate, juicy, and fibreless. This cultivar has an outstanding anthracnose resistance, and it is also very resistant to mango bacterial black spot and rot fungi. Heavy rainfall can wash out Florigon’s flavor, but during dry weather they have an exceptionally flavored and sweet tasting fruit.

 

Fruit Punch – Fruit punch is oval, medium sized and develops a nice red blush color on the skin. The flesh is yellow, very firm and fibreless. It has just the perfect level of acidity for it to have a nicely balanced and complex flavor. The trees appear to be good producers, but the fruit are moderately susceptible to bacterial spot. It is a mid-season mango ripening from July to August.

 

Glenn – A juicy and rich-flavored mango with no fiber. It has thin but tough skin which turns bright yellow when ripe and develops an orange-red blush on the sun-exposed side. The flesh has a deep golden hue and smooth velvety and creamy texture accompanied by a prevalent aroma. It has moderate resistance to anthracnose and very good resistance to bacterial black spot.

 

Golden Glow – Golden glow is a delicious selection from Kihei, Maui that bears regularly in May through June although it has been known to produce during the winter months as well. The medium sized fruit has a golden skin, very little fiber, and thin seed. The flesh is firm with mildly tart flavor and creamy texture. This cultivar is best suited for dry areas.

 

Gouveia – Gouveia is a Pirie seedling selection from Oahu that regularly bears in August. The quality and bearing do not develop well in cooler and humid areas during flowering and fruit setting. Trees produce excellent medium-sized fruits that are highly aromatic. The flesh is fibreless. Gouveia is only suitable to grow in “ideal” mango-growing areas, which are warm, sunny, and relatively dry.

 

Graham – This cultivar was developed from a seedling of Julie in Trinidad. The trees grow vigorously to 20’ and form a round, dense canopy and are disease resistant. The fruit has a yellow – orange fibreless flesh and rich, aromatic flavor with resinous notes.

 

Haden – Haden mango is one of the most widely cultivated in the world and a parent of many other mango cultivars later developed in Florida. It is known for its vibrant golden – orange hue, and sublime flavor. The flesh is tender, non-fibrous, smooth, and juicy with custard-like texture. It has an excellent rich and aromatic flavor with citrusy and floral notes. The tree is a vigorous grower. The fruit ripens June through July.

 

Ice creamDwarf tree with lush canopy and glossy, green leaves. The fruit releases a fragrant, sugary-sweet aroma when ripe. The fruits are fibreless and have a floral taste with nuances of vanilla, peach and honey. Delicious and full of flavor that is reminiscent of mango sorbet, Ice cream mango is perfect for accompanying your favorite dessert or eaten fresh.   

 

Jahinger– is an Indian cultivar. The fruit has an oval shape, green skin and light-yellow flesh. The texture is smooth and fibreless. The flavor is sweet, with complex citrus notes. The fruit is best consumed when still green on the outside. Once the skin turns orange, it is best to use for juice.

 

Julie – Julie is a dwarf, slower growing cultivar from the West Indies. The fruit is fibreless, smooth, and delicious and the skin is yellow green with pink hues at maturity. It produces best in dry areas.

 

Kasturi – A unique species of mango from Indonesia (Mangifera casturi). The fruits have smooth skin that begins to take on a purple hue and turns to almost black when ripe. The skin is relatively thick, and the flesh is dark orange, aromatic and juicy. The flowers and fruit are resistant to anthracnose.

 

Kiett – A Florida cultivar that is an abundant bearer, considered the best for export cultivar of the Americas. Keitt mangoes are only cultivated on a small scale as the trees have low disease resistance when young. The fruit is large, low in fiber with a thin seed. The skin is green with yellow, red and purple hues. The fruit has a long shelf life and its used in an array of fresh and cooked preparations.

 

Kuini – Kuini is a unique species of mango, (Mangifera odorata) commonly cultivated in villages throughout Southeast Asia. As the Latin name reveals, the fruit scent is so strong that the tree can be identified just by how it smells. The aroma is a mixture of mango candy, parmesan cheese, and durian. The flesh is fibrous with a complex, savory-sweet flavor. Both the trees and fruit are anthracnose resistant. A medium-sized tree. 

Lalijiwo – A unique species of mango endemic to Java (Mangifera lalijiwa). It produces medium sized oval green fruit with a fibreless flesh. The flavor is mild and sweet, like that of many SE Asian mangos. This species is resistant to anthracnose but susceptible to bacterial black spot and powdery mildew.

 

Lemon Zest – Trees have a vigorous and dense growth habit. The fruits are small and elongated with a nice balance of sweetness and tartness. The flesh is aromatic, firm, and fibreless, similar to a lemon or orange sherbet. The best time to harvest is when the fruit turns yellow. Lemon Zest can thrive in drier areas but otherwise is susceptible to anthracnose, bacterial black spot & powdery mildew. Trees have a vigorous and dense growth habit. It is a mid-season mango ripening from July to August.

 

Little gem – The fruit is small and round, turning orange at maturity with a beautiful red blush. The skin is thick, and the flesh is firm, and fibreless. The taste is sweet and aromatic. This cultivar has a very good disease resistance. The trees are compact and low-to-moderately vigorous growers with a dense canopy. It is a mid-season mango ripening from July to August.

 

Maha Chanok – A premium quality mango from Thailand. It has a distinctive, very elongated shape with a slight curve at the bottom. The skin is thin, and the taste is unique, reminiscent of a melon and honey with citrusy notes. The flesh is fibreless with a silky smooth, creamy but firm texture. The tree is a medium to large grower and has excellent disease resistance. Early to mid-season mango.

 

Manilita – Manilita is a selection of Manila cultivar from the Pacific Coast of Mexico. The fruits are small and elongated with a beautiful pastel red color covering all but the tip of the fruit. The flesh is light yellow, and the texture is silky-smooth and fibreless. The tree is disease resistant with dwarf growing habit and size can be maintained at 7 ft or less. It was listed as a curator’s choice mango at the Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden’s 2010 International Mango Festival in Miami. It is an early season mango fruiting May – July.

 

Mapulehu – Mapulehu is a Molokai seedling selection that produces best in dry areas. Trees grow vigorously and bear fruit heavily in July. The fruit is medium size and has a distinctive pointed end. The flesh is golden, juicy and aromatic when ripe with a complex flavor. The texture is silky with no fiber. This cultivar is resistant to anthracnose and bacterial black spot and the tree growth is dense and compact.

 

Nam Doc Mai – Nam Doc Mai is the most popular variety in Thailand, where it originates from. The fruit is elongated, usually yellow with green spots or a reddish blush on the sun-exposed side. The flesh, like most Southeast Asian mangos, has no fiber. It has a smooth, silky texture and is highly aromatic with slight lemony notes. It can also be eaten while mature green or used for sauces, preserves and pickles.

 

Po pu kalay – Po pu kalay has a rich, sweet and citrusy dominated “Lemon Meringue” aroma. Introduced to Florida from Myanmar and later given the name “Lemon Meringue”, which is now more commonly known as. The trees are vigorous, vertical growers with dense canopy and produce well. The fruits are yellow, small and have pale yellow and fibreless flesh. Both the trees and fruit are anthracnose resistant, but moderately susceptible to bacterial black spot. An early season mango, usually fruiting from May to July.

 

R2E2 King – R2E2 is a mid-season cultivar that has a large, oblong, red-blush colored fruit and small seed. The trees bear a regular heavy crop and produce best in dry areas. The fruit is fibreless with silky smooth texture. R2E2 has a rich flavor, spicy overtones, and slight turpentine notes. This cultivar has a long shelf life and is sought-after on the export markets.

 

Rapoza – Rapoza is a Hawaii selection that is an abundant producer of large, excellent quality fruits with a thin seed and fibreless texture. The ripe fruit has a yellow skin with red and purple hues. The golden flesh is juicy and aromatic with resinous notes. It is fungus resistant and was selected for Hawaii because if it loses its flowers to anthracnose in Spring, it would re-flower and produce excellent fruit in Aug/Sept.

 

Siam – A Thailand cultivar, it bears oblong fruits that have yellow-green skin with reddish hues. Siam is an abundant producer, and it seems to be relatively anthracnose tolerant.

 

ST Maui – ST Maui originated in Hawaii and was evaluated by the University of Hawaii’s research program. The fruit is medium sized, round and has a red blush at maturity. The flesh is firm, fibreless, and light yellow. The taste is unique, with resinous and spicy notes and a hint of guava. The trees are extremely vigorous growers with spreading growth habit and dense canopy. The fruit ripens in July.

 

Super Julie – A seedling of Julie, the tree is a very vigorous grower with dense, spreading canopy. It has a medium sized fruit with a beautiful orange-red color at maturity. The flesh is orange, and the texture is soft and fibreless. The flavor is rich with abundant spice character and dessert-like sweetness. It has a good anthracnose and powdery mildew resistance and can fruit in humid areas, but the fruit is quite prone to mango bacterial black spot. The fruit ripens June through July.

 

Sweet Tart – Trees are vigorous growers, abundant producers and have a vertical growth habit. The fruit is small, yellow at maturity with orange and fibreless flesh. It has a poor flesh-to-seed ratio. The fruit has a rich and complex flavor and a strong tart component which diminishes as the fruit ripens. Trees have very good anthracnose and bacterial black spot resistance. It is a mid-season mango ripening from July to August.

 

Venus  – A very productive cultivar with medium to large fruit. It has bight citrus flavor and balanced tartness with sight coconut overtones. The resinous aroma is much more prominent near the skin. The fruit is greenish-yellow with a soft red blush on the sun exposed side. Venus mangos have good resistance to anthracnose, however are moderately susceptible to bacterial black spot.

 

White Pirie – White Pirie is from Hawaii, derived from the Indian Pirie and one of the most grown mangos in Hawaii. The fruit is medium-sized, round, and turns yellow with beautiful pastel orange blush at maturity. The flesh is golden-yellow, fibreless with a deep, complex flavor and abundant spicy notes. It is not anthracnose resistant and not well suited for wet areas.